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Clostridium difficile associated disease in swine: Guideline for a proper diagnosis


Clostridioides difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore forming bacterium known to infect and cause clinical disease in swine. Very shortly after birth, the gastrointestinal tract is colonized by mixed bacterial populations present within the environment. The process of intestinal colonization is highly complex and influenced by numerous factors including, but not limited to, environmental bacterial load, sow’s microbiota, antibiotic usage, sow diet, genetics and quantity and quality of colostrum (immunomodulation).

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