4. Geographical distribution

知識 4. Geographical distribution

4. Geographical distribution

Two genotypes have been recognised (type 1 or European, and type 2 or North-American); type 1 is the predominant genotype in Europe while type 2 is the most present in America and Asia. Within type 1, at least 4 different subtypes have been reported; subtype I is predominant in Western Europe whereas subtypes II, III and IV have been isolated only in countries eastwards of Poland until now. Regarding type 2, two clades have been described.

Nevertheless, both type 1 and 2 are disseminated worldwide; they can be found in almost all pig-producing countries, with the exception of Australia, New Zealand, Scandinavia, Switzerland and some South American countries that are PRRS virus-free.

The highly-pathogenic PRRS virus which emerged in China belongs to type 2. It rapidly spread throughout Asia. Nowadays, it can be found in East, South and North Asia: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Vietnam, etc. (World Organisation for Animal Health; World Animal Health Information Database Interface; OIE 2013).


 

As can be deduced from the PRRS virus global distribution map, the risk of intercontinental transmission of any strain, including the highly pathogenic strains detected in Asia, is extremely real. Also, as has recently been observed in Chile, the re-introduction of PRRS virus in a PRRS virus-free country can be devastating.
 

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