Myxomatosis

Myxomatosis

 

AETIOLOGY:

Poxvirus, a DNA virus antigenically related to the Shope fibroma virus. Different pathogenic strains. Susceptible to common disinfectants.

 

TRANSMISSION:

  • Direct: secretions, etc. 
     
  • Indirect: insect bites, needles, instruments used for artificial insemination and other fomites.  

 

CLINICAL SIGNS:

  • Classical or nodular form: oedemas (eyelids, head – “big head disease” – perianal region, etc.), and nodules or myxoma in distal parts of the body (ears, muzzle, eyelids, etc.) and anogenital region. 
     
  • Atypical or respiratory form: breathlessness, coryza, oedema and small myxomas.  

 

LESIONS:

  • Classical or nodular form: blepharoconjunctivitis and myxomas. 
     
  • Atypical or respiratory form: rhinitis, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, bleeding in the lungs and pneumonia, complicated by secondary bacterial agents (Pasteurella multocida, Bordetella bronchiseptica).  

 

DIAGNOSIS:

  • Identification of the causative agent: inoculation in live animals or in cell culture, immunological methods (AGID, IIF) and electron microscopy. 
  • Serology: CF and ELISA.  

 

TREATMENT, PREVENTION AND CONTROL:

  • Biosecurity measures: insect control. Homologous live attenuated vaccines the antigen of which is the myxomatosis virus, and/or heterologous vaccines containing the attenuated Shope fibroma virus.  

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY: 

  • HARTCOURT-BROWN, F. (2002) Textbook of rabbit medicine. Ed. Butterworth Heinemann. ISBN 0 7506 4002 2.
  • OSTERHAUS, A.D.M.E. (1994) Virus infections of rodents and lagomorphs. Ed. Elsevier. ROSELL, J.M. (2000) Enfermedades del conejo. Ed. Mundi-Prensa. ISBN 84-7114-907-9.